Abstract. Humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) were the most abundant and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedalism, language, and large, complex brains. They lived as hunter-gatherers foraging and hunting to collect food from their environment. Controlled use of fire for warmth, cooking and warding off predators marked a crucial turning point in their early history. But during the Neolithic period at about 12,000 years ago a revolutionary change occurred, called Agricultural Revolution. This brought a revolutionary transition in human history from small, nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers to larger, agricultural settlements and early civilization. First it appeared in the “Fertile Crescent” region of the Middle East with systematic farming and livestock rearing. The Fertile Crescent, also known as the “Cradle of Civilization”, is regarded as the birthplace not only of agriculture, but also of urbanization, writing, trade, science, history and organized religion.
Industrial Revolutions, starting in the 18th century in Britain, at first initiated revolutionary processes of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. The Industrial Revolutions have challenged among other things the crucial role of universities and their educational models that demand to reflect for lifelong learning to cope with the technological and social changes. The changing landscape in higher education demand mainly skills from graduates and not just higher degrees as the reality of the future. Start-ups and new business models are disrupting traditional educational institutions and operating models. The industrial revolutions indicate a future of unprecedented societal shifts, in which higher education is crucial to managing the challenges and opportunities ahead. With more automated, digitized and fluid job markets, today’s higher education systems are quickly becoming incompatible with the future we are looking towards. Higher education institutions are generally still geared to the older educational models and express doubts about their ability to adapt to future advances of digital developments. Most debates among educational experts focused around the future of education on the skills needed and the imperative of reskilling. It is equally important to explore for the inevitable structural transformations that needed in higher educational institutions in the face of the impact of the advancing in the near future of the 5th Industrial Revolution. The recent Fourth Industrial Revolution affected not only economic activities but also a wide range of fields such as health, medical care, public services, industry, education and the way people work and their lifestyles. Information and communication technology (ICT), big data combined with artificial intelligence (AI) enabled not only information analysis but also the provision of labour and services that involve complex judgments by machines, and this is expected to contribute to the resolution of various social problems. This review collected and present some of the most interesting papers on the subject.