Abstract. Nanotechnology has been hailed as a revolutionary technological advance with numerous applications in a great variety of medical fileds. Particularly inventive has been the field of nano-medical applications that can change dramatically diagnosis and biosensing, drug delivery and nanoscale devices for specialised therapeutic treatments. In the last decade innovative nanomaterials have become a practical reality, especially with revolutionary medical applications. Research has been advancing the discovery of breakthrough innovation in nanostructured medical devices with imaginative properties in preventative health and diagnostic fields. New nanotechnological therapeutics have been developed with entirely new pharmaceutical substances, which can introduce a range of advantages over classical drug-delivery methods. Nanoparticles are used for drug-targeted delivery to diseased sites only, with improved adsorption, distribution and duration of medicines in the body. Nanotechnology has been creating its niche in various aspects of dentistry, restorative dentistry and endodontics.Nanotechnological applications in ophthalmology have advanced rapidly, including treatment of oxidative stress for ocular degenerative diseases, measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostics (combines therapeutics with diagnostics); use of nano particles for treatment of choroidal new vessels, and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Tissue engineering is integrating nano-engineering material science and medical biology, aiming for repair or to enhance tissue and organ-level functions. Nanoparticles have been used in tissue enginnering in order to obtain improved mechanical and biological performances. Nanomaterials with specialized properties have made revolutionary advances for tissue enginnering. Nanostructured materials can be used to convey antimicrobials, or assist delivery of novel drugs that possess antimicrobial activity. Also, nanoparticles may circumvent drug resistance mechanisms in bacteria and inhibit bioofilm formation which is associated with their antimicrobial potential, In recent years the innovative use of microelectromechanical and nanoelectro-mechanical systems in biomedical applications opened new opportunities for precise and accurate diagnostics and innovative therapeutic methods. This review covers the most important breakthroughs of nanotechnology in medical devices from the international scientific literature and their innovative applications.