Abstract. The scientific fields of ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry are advancing rapidly covering the study of emerging pollutants in the last decade. This review aims to present recent ecotoxicological research projects in emerging areas of environmental pollution. Among other developments the use of marine organisms as bioindicators of chemical water pollution is gaining great prominence in environmental studies. Ecotoxicological studies play an important role in measurements of environmental pollution by heavy and trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fertilizers, halogenated organic compounds (chlorinate, brominated and fluorinated), pesticides, flame retardants, pharmaceuticala and metabolites, nanoparticles from novel materials, municipal and industrial waste mixtures, disinfectants, wood preservatives, flame retardants, plasticizers, and a great variety of other toxic compounds. In addition, ecotoxicological studies investigate the molecular, biochemical and cellular underlining mechanisms and effects on the environment, its biota and ecosystem biodiversity. Also, ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry investigate the transfer of chemical pollutants along terrestrial food chains and marine food webs, the biomagnification of toxic substances and the possible risks. These studies are used to produce ecological risk assessment models that can be useful to evaluate levels of pollution and integrate a great variety of factors for future developments. Ecological risk assessments support management decisions for positive actions to reduce pollution and future monitoring of areas under threat. The development of the conceptual models of eccological risk assessment can be paralleled by the continuous upgrade of specific environmental measurements and dedicated software. Areas of great interest for ecotoxicological studies are mainly naval ports, sea dredging activities in coastal areas, polluted sediments in marine areas, surface waters with eutrophication problems (nitrate and phospheate pollution), marine areas with high concentration of heavy metals and polluted marine food webs. Also, environmental pollution investigations can be applied in polluted sites by municipal effluents and industrial solid and liquid waste. Ecotoxicological studies are needed for monitoring of off-shore installations (petroleum and gas extraction platforms or terminals), industrial sites and agricultural activities in cases of accidents and extensive marine pollution disasters.
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