The scientific consensus among researchers and environmentalists is that there is a large number of environmental problems, of which 12 are urgent and most important global environmental issues that humanity needs to resolve in the next 30 years (2050). Global warming by greenhouse gases and Climate change are inevitably the biggest and most urgent environmental problems that humanity will face over the next decades.The 12 most urgent environmental issues facing planet Earth are: Climate Change and mitigation, especially global warming due to CO2 emissions, Long term pollution and adverse effects on human health, Protecting the seas and oceans from waste and pollution (fuel spills, plastic, municipal wastewater and solid waste, overfishing, etc), The Energy transition to non polluting resources and Renewable energy sources. Sustainable Food production model, for nutritious food production with limited environmental pollution and as far as possible minimum food waste, Protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, to reverse the animal and plant losses, Waste management, prevention, reduction and recycling. Overpopulation, sustainable urban development and mobility, growth of cities. Water, vital resource, scarcity of drinking water, sustainable use in agriculture, Extreme meteorological phenomena, prevention of mass damage to civilian and industrial infrastructure and human life Deforestation, Desertification caused by human activities and climate change. Special reference to air pollution, indoor air and ambient urban air pollution. These urgent environmental issues are very challenging and need drastic changes in the way global production and consumption leads to unsustainable practices and overconsumption of natural resources. Use of fossil fuels is a good example. Phase-out coal as an energy source is very difficult to achieve despite its crucial role in greenhouse gas emissions. China and India use too much coal for electricity and energy. Burning coal is the single biggest contributor to global warming and climate change. Rapid increase of renewable energy sources is considered very important to reduce the carbon footprint of modern societies. Long term pollution is well known as responsible for adverse human health effects. Sustainable food production is also very vital to feed the increasing global population without endangering sustainability. Deforestation and desertification are considered very urgent environmental issues for the biological biodiversity. It is estimated that around 1 million animal and plant species are threatened with extinction according to the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service. Short-term exposure to air pollutants is closely related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, shortness of breath, wheezing, asthma, respiratory disease, and high rates of hospitalization. The long-term effects associated with air pollution are chronic asthma, pulmonary insufficiency, cardiovascular diseases, and premature cardiovascular mortality. Reducing air pollution and water pollution are considered fundamental for restoring human protection from diseases and premature mortality.